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Sep 14, 2011

San Diego is the second largest city in the United States

San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest city in California. The city is located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, immediately adjacent to the Mexican border. The birthplace of California,[2] San Diego is known for its mild year-round climate, its natural deep-water harbor, and its long association with the U.S. Navy. The population was 1,301,617 at the 2010 census.[3]

Historically home to the Kumeyaay people, San Diego was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Cabrillo claimed the entire area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later. The Presidio and Mission of San Diego, founded in 1769, were the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of newly independent Mexico, and in 1850, became part of the United States following the Mexican-American War and the admission of California to the union.

The city is the county seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos metropolitan area as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, and manufacturing. The presence of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology.
Main article: History of San Diego
Full length portrait of a man in his thirties wearing a long robe, woman and child visible behind him and dog to his left
Kumeyaay people lived in San Diego for more than 10,000 years before Europeans settled there.
Man in his twenties or thirties standing transfixed in front of a cross his height, five onlookers
Namesake of the city, Didacus of Alcalá: Saint Didacus in Ecstasy Before the Cross by Murillo (Musée des Augustins)
Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Oval, black and white shoulder-height portrait of a man in his forties or fifties, slightly balding wearing a suit
Namesake of Horton Plaza, Alonzo Horton developed "New Town" which became Downtown San Diego.

The area of San Diego has been inhabited for more than 10,000 years by the Kumeyaay people.[4] The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailing under the flag of Castile. Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542 and named the site 'San Miguel'.[5] In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego.[6]

In May 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Father Junípero Serra.[7] By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper.[8] Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks.[9][10]

In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, and San Diego became part of the Mexican state of Alta California. The fort on Presidio Hill was gradually abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government, and most of the Mission lands were distributed to wealthy Californio settlers.

As a result of the Mexican-American War of 1846–1848, the territory of Alta California, including San Diego, was ceded to the United States by Mexico. The Battle of San Pasqual, a battle of the Mexican-American War, was fought in 1846 in the San Pasqual Valley which is now part of the city of San Diego. The state of California was admitted to the United States in 1850. That same year San Diego was designated the seat of the newly established San Diego County and was incorporated as a city. The initial city charter was established in 1889 and today's city charter was adopted in 1931.[11]

The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area which is now Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. The location was not ideal, being several miles away from navigable water. In the late 1860s, Alonzo Horton promoted a move to "New Town", several miles south of the original settlement, in the area which became Downtown San Diego. People and businesses flocked to New Town because of its location on San Diego Bay convenient to shipping. New Town quickly eclipsed the original settlement, known to this day as Old Town, and became the economic and governmental heart of the city.[12]

In the early part of the 20th century, San Diego hosted two World's Fairs: the Panama-California Exposition in 1915 and the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935. Both expositions were held in Balboa Park, and many of the Spanish/Baroque-style buildings that were built for those expositions remain to this day as central features of the park. The buildings were intended to be temporary structures, but most remained in continuous use until they progressively fell into disrepair. Most were eventually rebuilt, using castings of the original facades to retain the architectural style.[13] The menagerie of exotic animals featured at the 1915 exposition provided the basis for the San Diego Zoo.[14]
Hand drawn illustration of Balboa Park
Balboa Park on the cover of a guidebook for the World Exposition of 1915

Significant U.S. Navy presence began in 1901 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station in Point Loma, and expanded greatly during the 1920s.[15] By 1930 the city was host to Naval Base San Diego, Naval Training Center San Diego, San Diego Naval Hospital, Camp Matthews, and Camp Kearny (now Marine Corps Air Station Miramar). The city was also an early center for aviation: as early as World War I San Diego was proclaiming itself "The Air Capital of the West."[16] The city was home to important airplane developers and manufacturers like Ryan Airlines (later Ryan Aeronautical), founded in 1925, and Consolidated Aircraft (later Convair), founded in 1923. Charles A. Lindbergh's plane The Spirit of St. Louis was built in San Diego in 1927 by Ryan Airlines.[16]

During World War II, San Diego became a major hub of military and defense activity, due to the presence of so many military installations and defense manufacturers. The city's population grew rapidly during and after World War II, more than doubling between 1930 (147,995) and 1950 (333,865).[17] After World War II, the military continued to play a major role in the local economy, but post-Cold War cutbacks took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. The resulting downturn led San Diego leaders to seek to diversify the city's economy by focusing on research and science, as well as tourism.[18]

Downtown San Diego was in decline in the 1960s and 1970s but experienced some urban renewal since the early 1980s, including the opening of Horton Plaza, the revival of the Gaslamp Quarter, and the construction of the San Diego Convention Center; Petco Park opened in 2004.[19]
See also: Beaches in San Diego and Parks in San Diego
The San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area

The city of San Diego lies on deep canyons and hills separating its mesas, creating small pockets of natural parkland scattered throughout the city and giving it a hilly geography. Traditionally, San Diegans have built their homes and businesses on the mesas, while leaving the canyons relatively wild.[20] Thus, the canyons give parts of the city a segmented feel, creating gaps between otherwise proximate neighborhoods and contributing to a low-density, car-centered environment. The San Diego River runs through the middle of San Diego from east to west, creating a river valley which serves to divide the city into northern and southern segments. Several reservoirs and Mission Trails Regional Park also lie between and separate developed areas of the city.

Notable peaks within the city limits include Cowles Mountain, the highest point in the city at 1,593 feet (486 m); Black Mountain at 1,558 feet (475 m); and Mount Soledad at 824 feet (251 m). The Cuyamaca Mountains and Laguna Mountains rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. The Cleveland National Forest is a half-hour drive from downtown San Diego. Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city.
Communities and neighborhoods
Normal Heights, a neighborhood
Main article: List of communities and neighborhoods of San Diego

The city of San Diego recognizes 52 individual areas as Community Planning Areas.[21] Within a given planning area there may be several distinct neighborhoods. Altogether the city contains more than 100 identified neighborhoods.[22]

Downtown San Diego is located on San Diego Bay. Balboa Park encompasses several mesas and canyons to the northeast, surrounded by older, dense urban communities including Hillcrest and North Park. To the east and southeast lie City Heights, the College Area, and Southeast San Diego. To the north lies Mission Valley and Interstate 8. The communities north of the valley and freeway, and south of Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, include Clairemont, Kearny Mesa, Tierrasanta, and Navajo. Stretching north from Miramar are the northern suburbs of Mira Mesa, Scripps Ranch, Rancho Peñasquitos, and Rancho Bernardo. The far northeast portion of the city encompasses Lake Hodges and the San Pasqual Valley, which holds an agricultural preserve. Carmel Valley and Del Mar Heights occupy the northwest corner of the city. To their south are Torrey Pines State Reserve and the business center of the Golden Triangle. Further south are the beach and coastal communities of La Jolla, Pacific Beach, and Ocean Beach. Point Loma occupies the peninsula across San Diego Bay from downtown. The communities of South San Diego, such as San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, are located next to the Mexican border, and are physically separated from the rest of the city by the cities of National City and Chula Vista; a narrow strip of land at the bottom of San Diego Bay connects these southern neighborhoods with the rest of the city.

Unlike some areas of Southern California, where neighborhoods and even cities may run into each other without a clear demarcation, San Diego neighborhood boundaries tend to be clearly understood by their residents based on geographical boundaries like canyons and street patterns.[23] The city recognized the importance of its neighborhoods when it organized its 2008 General Plan around the concept of a "City of Villages".[24]
Main article: List of tallest buildings in San Diego

San Diego was originally centered in the Old Town district, but by the late 1860s the center of focus had relocated to the bayfront in the belief that this new location would increase trade. As the "New Town" – present-day Downtown – waterfront location quickly developed, it eclipsed Old Town as the center of San Diego.[25]

The development of skyscrapers over 300 feet (91 m) in San Diego is attributed to the construction of the El Cortez Apartment Hotel in 1927, the tallest building in the city from 1927 to 1963.[26] As time went on multiple buildings claimed the title of San Diego's tallest skyscraper, including the Union Bank of California Building and Symphony Towers. Currently the tallest building in San Diego is One America Plaza, standing 500 feet (150 m) tall, which was completed in 1991.[27] The downtown skyline contains no super-talls, as a regulation put in place by the Federal Aviation Administration in the 1970s set a 500 feet (152 m) limit on the height of buildings due to the proximity of San Diego International Airport.[28] An iconic description of the skyline includes its skyscrapers being compared to the tools of a toolbox.[29] Within the city limits are multiple skylines composed of high-rises and mid-rises, including University City, Rancho Bernardo, Centre City, Carmel Valley and La Jolla Village.
Panorama of San Diego as viewed from North Island
Main article: Climate of San Diego, California
A surfer at Black's Beach

San Diego is one of the top-ten best climates in the Farmer's Almanac[30] and is one of the two best summer climates in America as scored by The Weather Channel.[31] Under the Köppen climate classification system, the San Diego area straddles areas of Mediterranean climate (CSa) to the north and Semi-arid climate (BSh) to the south and east.[32] As a result, it is often described as "arid Mediterranean" and "Semi-arid Steppe". San Diego's climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters with most of the annual precipitation falling between December and March. The city has mild, mostly dry weather, with an average of 201 days above 70 °F (21 °C) and low rainfall (9–13 inches [23–33 cm] annually).

The climate in the San Diego area, like much of California, often varies significantly over short geographical distances resulting in microclimates. In San Diego's case this is mainly due to the city's topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons). Frequently, particularly during the "May gray/June gloom" period, a thick "marine layer" cloud cover will keep the air cool and damp within a few miles of the coast, but will yield to bright cloudless sunshine approximately 5–10 miles (8.0–16 km) inland.[33] Sometimes the June gloom can last into July, causing cloudy skies over most of San Diego for the entire day.[34][35] Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas tend to experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas, where the ocean serves as a moderating influence. Thus, for example, downtown San Diego averages January lows of 50 °F (10 °C) and August highs of 78 °F (26 °C). The city of El Cajon, just 10 miles (16 km) inland from downtown San Diego, averages January lows of 42 °F (6 °C) and August highs of 88 °F (31 °C).

A sign of global warming, scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography say the average surface temperature of the water at Scripps Pier in the California Current has increased by almost 3 degrees since 1950.[36]
Several people, some wearing full length suits and carrying surf boards, on a beachfront with houses visible above them
Surfers in Pacific Beach

Rainfall along the coast averages about 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation annually. The average (mean) rainfall is 10.65 inches (271 mm) and the median is 9.6 inches (240 mm).[37] Most of the rainfall occurs during the cooler months. The months of December through March supply most of the rain, with February the only month averaging 2 inches (51 mm) or more of rain. The months of May through September tend to be almost completely dry. Though there are few wet days per month during the rainy period, rainfall can be heavy when it does fall. Rainfall is usually greater in the higher elevations of San Diego; some of the higher elevation areas of San Diego can receive 11–15 inches (280–380 mm) of rain a year.

Snow in the city is so rare that it has been observed only five times in the century-and-a-half that records have been kept. In 1949 and 1967, snow stayed on the ground for a few hours in higher locations like Point Loma and La Jolla. The other three occasions, in 1882, 1946, and 1987, involved flurries but no accumulation.[38]

Official temperature record-keeping began in San Diego in 1872,[39] although other weather records go back further. The city's first official weather station was located at Mission San Diego from 1849 to 1858. From August 1858 until 1940, the official weather station was located at a series of downtown buildings, and the station has been at Lindbergh Field since February 1940.[40]

Torrey Pines State Park Valley
Coastal canyon in Torrey Pines State Reserve

Like most of southern California, the majority of San Diego's current area was originally occupied by chaparral, a plant community made up mostly of drought-resistant shrubs. The endangered Torrey Pine has the bulk of its population in San Diego in a stretch of protected chaparral along the coast. The steep and varied topography and proximity to the ocean create a number of different habitats within the city limits, including tidal marsh and canyons. The chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in low elevations along the coast are prone to wildfire, and the rates of fire have increased in the 20th century, due primarily to fires starting near the borders of urban and wild areas.[43]

San Diego's broad city limits encompass a number of large nature preserves, including Torrey Pines State Reserve, Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve, and Mission Trails Regional Park. Torrey Pines State Reserve and a coastal strip continuing to the north constitute the only location where the rare species of Torrey Pine, P. torreyana torreyana, is found.[44]
San Diego against Witch Creek Fire smoke
San Diego viewed against the Witch Creek Fire smoke

Due to the steep topography that prevents or discourages building, along with some efforts for preservation, there are also a large number of canyons within the city limits that serve as nature preserves, including Switzer Canyon, Tecolote Canyon Natural Park,[45] and Marian Bear Memorial Park in the San Clemente Canyon,[46] as well as a number of small parks and preserves.

San Diego County has one of the highest counts of animal and plant species that appear on the endangered species list among counties in the United States.[47] Because of its diversity of habitat and its position on the Pacific Flyway, San Diego County has recorded the presence of 492 bird species, more than any other region in the country.[48] San Diego always scores very high in the number of bird species observed in the annual Christmas Bird Count, sponsored by the Audubon Society, and it is known as one of the "birdiest" areas in the United States.[49][50]

San Diego and its backcountry are subject to periodic wildfires. In October 2003, San Diego was the site of the Cedar Fire, which has been called the largest wildfire in California over the past century.[51] The fire burned 280,000 acres (1,100 km2), killed 15 people, and destroyed more than 2,200 homes.[52] In addition to damage caused by the fire, smoke resulted in a significant increase in emergency room visits due to asthma, respiratory problems, eye irritation, and smoke inhalation; the poor air quality caused San Diego County schools to close for a week.[53] Wildfires four years later destroyed some areas, particularly within the communities of Rancho Bernardo, Rancho Santa Fe, and Ramona.[54]

The city had a population of 1,307,402 in 2010, according to the census that year, on a land area of 372.1 square miles (963.7 km2). The urban area of San Diego extends beyond the administrative city limits and had a total 2010 population of 2,880,000, making it the third-largest urban area in California.
Historical populations
Census Pop. %±
1850 500
1860 731 46.2%
1870 2,300 214.6%
1880 2,637 14.7%
1890 16,159 512.8%
1900 17,700 9.5%
1910 39,578 123.6%
1920 74,361 87.9%
1930 147,995 99.0%
1940 203,341 37.4%
1950 333,865 64.2%
1960 573,224 71.7%
1970 696,769 21.6%
1980 875,538 25.7%
1990 1,110,549 26.8%
2000 1,223,400 10.2%
2010 1,307,402 6.9%

As of the Census of 2010, there were 1,307,402 people living in the city of San Diego.[56] That represents a population increase of just under 7% from the 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families reported in 2000.[57] The estimated city population in 2009 was 1,306,300. The population density was 3,771.9 people per square mile (1,456.4/km2). The racial makeup of San Diego was 58.9% White, 6.7% African American, 0.6% Native American, 15.9% Asian (5.9% Filipino, 2.7% Chinese, 2.5% Vietnamese, 1.3% Indian, 1.0% Korean, 0.7% Japanese, 0.4% Laotian, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.1% Thai). 0.5% Pacific Islander, 12.3% from other races, and 5.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.8%.[58][59] Among the Hispanic population, 24.9% are Mexican, and 0.6% are Puerto Rican.
A U.S. Navy vice admiral and an intelligence specialist celebrating Hispanic American Heritage Month in San Diego

As of January 1, 2008 estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments revealed that the household median income for San Diego rose to $66,715, up from $45,733, and that the city population rose to 1,336,865, up 9.3% from 2000.[60] The population was 45.3% non-Hispanic whites, 27.7% Hispanics, 15.6% Asians/Pacific Islanders, 7.1% blacks, 0.4% American Indians, and 3.9% from other races. Median age of Hispanics was 27.5 years, compared to 35.1 years overall and 41.6 years among non-Hispanic whites; Hispanics were the largest group in all ages under 18, and non-Hispanic whites constituted 63.1% of population 55 and older.

In 2000 there were 451,126 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. Households made up of individuals account for 28.0% and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.30.

The U.S. Census Bureau reported that in 2000, 24.0% of San Diego residents were under 18, and 10.5% were 65 and over.[61] The median age was 32; two-thirds of the population was under 35.[62] The San Diego County regional planning agency, SANDAG, provides tables and graphs breaking down the city population into 5-year age groups.[63] In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $45,733, and the median income for a family was $53,060.[64] Males had a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,609.[64] According to Forbes in 2005, San Diego was the fifth wealthiest U.S. city[65] but about 10.6% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.[64] Nonetheless, San Diego was rated the fifth-best place to live in the United States in 2006 by Money magazine.[66]

According to Forbes magazine, San Diego was the ninth-safest city in the top 10 list of safest cities in the U.S. in 2010.[67] Like most major cities, San Diego had a declining crime rate from 1990 to 2000. Crime slightly increased in the early 2000s.[68][69][70] In 2004, San Diego had the sixth lowest crime rate of any U.S. city with over half a million residents.[70] From 2002 to 2006, the crime rate overall dropped 0.8%, though not evenly by category. While violent crime decreased 12.4% during this period, property crime increased 1.1%. Total property crimes per 100,000 people were lower than the national average in 2008.[71]
See also: List of companies headquartered in San Diego

The largest sectors of San Diego's economy are defense/military, tourism, international trade, and research/manufacturing, respectively.[72][73]
Defense and military
Long low building, very very long, with sign that reads "SPAWAR"
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR)

The economy of San Diego is influenced by its deepwater port, which includes the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the West Coast. Several major national defense contractors were started and are headquartered in San Diego, including General Atomics, Cubic, and NASSCO.

San Diego hosts the largest naval fleet in the world:[74] it was in 2008 was home to 53 ships, over 120 tenant commands, and more than 35,000 sailors, soldiers, Department of Defense civilian employees and contractors.[75] About 5 percent of all civilian jobs in the county are military-related, and 15,000 businesses in San Diego County rely on Department of Defense contracts.[75]
F/A-18 Hornet flying over San Diego

Military bases in San Diego include US Navy facilities, Marine Corps bases, and Coast Guard stations. Marine Corps institutions in the city of San Diego include Marine Corps Air Station Miramar and Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego. The Navy has several institutions in the city, including Naval Base Point Loma, Naval Base San Diego (also known as the 32nd Street Naval Station), Bob Wilson Naval Hospital, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command. Also near San Diego but not within the city limits are Naval Amphibious Base Coronado and Naval Air Station North Island (which operates Naval Auxiliary Landing Facility San Clemente Island, Silver Strand Training Complex, and the Outlying Field Imperial Beach). San Diego is known as the "birthplace of naval aviation".[76]

The city is "home to the majority of the U.S. Pacific Fleet's surface combatants, all of the Navy's West Coast amphibious ships and a variety of Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command vessels".[75] One Nimitz class supercarrier, (the USS Carl Vinson),[77] five amphibious assault ships, several Los Angeles-class "fast attack" submarines, the Hospital Ship USNS Mercy, carrier and submarine tenders, destroyers, cruisers, frigates, and many smaller ships are home-ported there. Four Navy vessels have been named USS San Diego.[78]
B Street Pier off the Embarcadero

Tourism is a major industry owing to the city's climate, its beaches, and numerous tourist attractions such as Balboa Park, Belmont amusement park, San Diego Zoo, San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and SeaWorld San Diego. San Diego's Spanish and Mexican heritage is reflected in the many historic sites across the city, such as Mission San Diego de Alcala and Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. Annual events in San Diego include Comic-Con, the Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament, the San Diego Black Film Festival, and Street Scene Music Festival. Transient Occupancy Taxes (TOT) create funding for the City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture.[79]

San Diego County hosted more than 30 million visitors in 2009, of whom approximately half stayed overnight and half were day visitors; collectively they spent an estimated $15 billion locally.[80] The San Diego Convention Center hosted 68 out-of-town conventions and trade shows in 2009, attracting more than 600,000 visitors.[80]

San Diego's cruise ship industry is the second largest in California; each cruise ship call injects an estimated $2 million (from the purchase of food, fuel, supplies, and maintenance services) into the local economy.[81] Numerous cruise lines, including Celebrity, Crystal and Princess, operate out of San Diego. However, cruise ship business has been in steady decline since peaking in 2008, when the Port hosted over 250 ship calls and more than 900,000 passengers. By 2011 the number of ship calls had fallen to 103 (estimated).[82] Holland America and Carnival Cruises had operated weekly cruises to the Mexican Riviera, but announced that they will no longer do so after April 2012, an economic loss to the region of more than $100 million.[82] The decline is blamed on the slumping economy as well as fear of travel to Mexico due to well-publicized violence there.[83]
International trade

San Diego's commercial port and its location on the United States-Mexico border make international trade an important factor in the city's economy. The city is authorized by the United States government to operate as a Foreign Trade Zone.[84]

The city shares a 15-mile (24 km) border with Mexico that includes two border crossings. San Diego hosts the busiest international border crossing in the world, in the San Ysidro neighborhood at the San Ysidro Port of Entry.[85] A second, primarily commercial border crossing operates in the Otay Mesa area; it is the largest commercial crossing on the California-Baja California border and handles the third highest volume of trucks and dollar value of trade among all United States-Mexico land crossings.[86]

One of the Port of San Diego's two cargo facilities is located in Downtown San Diego at the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal. This terminal has facilities for containers, bulk cargo, and refrigerated and frozen storage, so that it can handle the import and export of perishables (including 33 million bananas every month) as well as fertilizer, cement, forest products, and other commodities.[87] In 2009 the Port of San Diego handled 1,137,054 short tons of total trade; foreign trade accounted for 956,637 short tons while domestic trade amounted to 180,417 short tons.[88]
Manufacturing and research
Modern five story office building
Qualcomm corporate headquarters

In 2010, former Governor Schwarzenegger’s Office of Economic Development designated San Diego as an iHub Innovation Center for collaboration potentially between wireless and life sciences, citing the area's wireless business, pharmaceutical research and start-ups for medical devices and diagnostics.[89]

San Diego hosts several major producers of wireless cellular technology. Qualcomm was founded and is headquartered in San Diego, and still is the largest private-sector technology employer (excluding hospitals) in San Diego County.[90] Other wireless industry manufacturers headquartered here include LG Electronics,[91] Kyocera International.,[92] and Novatel Wireless.[93] According to the San Diego Business Journal, the largest software company in San Diego is security software company Websense Inc.[94] San Diego also has the U.S. headquarters for the Slovakian security company ESET.[95]

The presence of the University of California, San Diego and other research institutions has helped to fuel biotechnology growth.[96] In June 2004, San Diego was ranked the top biotech cluster in the United States by the Milken Institute.[97] There are more than 400 biotechnology companies in the area.[98] In particular, the La Jolla and nearby Sorrento Valley areas are home to offices and research facilities for numerous biotechnology companies.[99] Major biotechnology companies like Neurocrine Biosciences and Nventa Biopharmaceuticals are headquartered in San Diego, while many biotech and pharmaceutical companies, such as BD Biosciences, Biogen Idec, Integrated DNA Technologies, Merck, Pfizer, Élan, Celgene, and Vertex, have offices or research facilities in San Diego. There are also several non-profit biotech and health care institutes, such as the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, the Scripps Research Institute, the West Wireless Health Institute and the Sanford-Burnham Institute. San Diego is also home to more than 140 contract research organizations (CROs) that provide a variety of contract services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.[100]
Real estate
Skyline view of the Village of La Jolla in San Diego

Prior to 2006, San Diego experienced a dramatic growth of real estate prices, to the extent that the situation was sometimes described as a "housing affordability crisis". Median house prices more than tripled between 1998 and 2007. According to the California Association of Realtors, in May 2007, a median house in San Diego cost $612,370.[101] Growth of real estate prices has not been accompanied by comparable growth of household incomes: Housing Affordability Index (percentage of households that can afford to buy a median-priced house) fell below 20 percent in the early 2000s. The San Diego metropolitan area had the second worst median multiple (ratio of median house price to median household income) of all metropolitan areas in the United States. As a consequence, San Diego had experienced negative net migration since 2004, with significant numbers of people moving to Baja California and Riverside County, with many residents commuting daily from Tijuana, Temecula, and Murrieta, to their jobs in San Diego. Others are leaving the state altogether and moving to more affordable regions.[102]

San Diego home prices peaked in 2005 then declined as part of a nationwide trend. As of December 2010, home prices were 60 percent higher than in 2000, but down 36 percent from the peak in 2005.[103] The median home price declined by more than $200,000 between 2005 and 2010, and sales dropped by 50 percent.[104]
Top employers

According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[105] the top employers in the city are:
Round seal with a bird in front. Words around the edge say Department of the Navy, United States of America
The United States Navy is San Diego's largest employer.
Employer Number of employees
United States Navy 55,300
San Diego Unified School District 21,959
University of California, San Diego 19,435
San Diego County 17,900
Sharp HealthCare 14,724
City of San Diego 10,799
Kaiser Permanente 7,220
University of San Diego 6,086
Qualcomm 6,000
UCSD Medical Center 5,300
Primary and secondary schools
Main article: Primary and secondary schools in San Diego

Public schools in San Diego are operated by independent school districts. The majority of the public schools in the city are served by the San Diego Unified School District, also the second largest school district in California, which includes 11 K-8 schools, 107 elementary schools, 24 middle schools, 13 atypical and alternative schools, 28 high schools, and 45 charter schools.[106] Several adjacent school districts which are headquartered outside the city limits serve some schools within the city; these include the Poway Unified School District, Del Mar Union School District, San Dieguito Union High School District and Sweetwater Union High School District. In addition, there are a number of private schools in the city.
Colleges and universities
San Diego State University's Hepner Hall

According to education rankings released by the U.S. Census Bureau, 40.4 percent of San Diegans ages 25 and older hold bachelor's degrees. The census ranks the city as the ninth most educated city in the United States based on these figures.[107]

Public colleges and universities in the city include San Diego State University (SDSU), University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and the San Diego Community College District, which includes San Diego City College, San Diego Mesa College, and San Diego Miramar College. Private colleges and universities in the city include University of San Diego (USD), Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU), Alliant International University (AIU), National University, California International Business University (CIBU), San Diego Christian College, John Paul the Great Catholic University, California College San Diego, Coleman University, University of Redlands School of Business, Design Institute of San Diego (DISD), Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising's San Diego campus, NewSchool of Architecture and Design, Pacific Oaks College San Diego Campus, Chapman University's San Diego Campus, The Art Institute of California-San Diego, Southern States University (SSU), UEI College, and Woodbury University School of Architecture's satellite campus.

There is one medical school in the city, the UCSD School of Medicine. There are three ABA accredited law schools in the city, which include California Western School of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, and University of San Diego School of Law. There is also one unaccredited law school, Western Sierra Law School.
University of California, San Diego's Geisel Library, named for Theodor Seuss Geisel ("Dr. Seuss")

The city-run San Diego Public Library system is headquartered downtown and has 34 branches throughout the city.[108] The libraries have had reduced operating hours since 2003 due to the city's financial problems. In 2006 the city increased spending on libraries by $2.1 million.[109] In the new 2011 budget, the mayor proposed further reducing library hours to 18 hours per week.[110]

In addition to the municipal public library system, there are nearly two dozen libraries open to the public which are run by other governmental agencies and by schools, colleges, and universities.[111] Noteworthy among them are the Malcolm A. Love Library at San Diego State University and the Geisel Library at the University of California, San Diego.
The Museum of Man
Main article: Culture of San Diego
See also: List of museums in San Diego and City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture

Many popular museums, such as the San Diego Museum of Art, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the San Diego Museum of Man, and the Museum of Photographic Arts are located in Balboa Park. The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego (MCASD) is located in La Jolla and has a branch located at the Santa Fe Depot downtown. The Columbia district downtown is home to historic ship exhibits belonging to the San Diego Maritime Museum, headlined by the Star of India, as well as the unrelated San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum featuring the USS Midway aircraft carrier.

The San Diego Symphony at Symphony Towers performs on a regular basis and is directed by Jahja Ling. The San Diego Opera at Civic Center Plaza, directed by Ian Campbell, was ranked by Opera America as one of the top 10 opera companies in the United States. Old Globe Theatre at Balboa Park produces about 15 plays and musicals annually. The La Jolla Playhouse at UCSD is directed by Christopher Ashley. Both the Old Globe Theatre and the La Jolla Playhouse have produced the world premieres of plays and musicals that have gone on to win Tony Awards[112] or nominations[113] on Broadway. The Joan B. Kroc Theatre at Kroc Center's Performing Arts Center is a 600-seat state-of-the-art theatre that hosts music, dance, and theatre performances. The San Diego Repertory Theatre at the Lyceum Theatres in Horton Plaza produces a variety of plays and musicals. Other professional theatrical production companies include the Lyric Opera San Diego and the Starlight Musical Theatre. Hundreds of movies and a dozen TV shows have been filmed in San Diego, a tradition going back as far as 1898.[114][115]
Full stands, both teams on the field, cheerleaders and lots of people milling around
Qualcomm Stadium (formerly named "Jack Murphy Stadium" after a sports writer) hosts a San Diego Chargers game with the St. Louis Rams.
Main article: Sports in San Diego
See also: San Diego sports curse

The National Football League's San Diego Chargers play in Qualcomm Stadium. Three NFL Super Bowl championships have been held there. Major League Baseball's San Diego Padres play in Petco Park. Parts of the World Baseball Classic were played there in 2006 and 2009.

NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs men's and women's basketball games are played at Viejas Arena at Aztec Bowl on the campus of San Diego State University. College football and soccer, basketball and volleyball are played at the Torero Stadium and the Jenny Craig Pavilion at USD.
Petco Park

The San Diego State Aztecs (MWC) and the University of San Diego Toreros (WCC) are NCAA Division I teams. The UCSD Tritons (CCAA) are members of NCAA Division II while the Point Loma Nazarene Sea Lions and San Diego Christian College (GSAC) are members of the NAIA.

Qualcomm stadium also houses the NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs, as well as local high school football championships, international soccer games, and supercross events. Two of college football's annual bowl games are also held there: the Holiday Bowl and the Poinsettia Bowl. Soccer, American football, and track and field are played in Balboa Stadium, the city's first stadium, constructed in 1914.

Rugby union is a developing sport in the city. The USA Sevens, a major rugby event, was held there from 2007 through 2009. San Diego is one of only 16 cities in the United States included in the Rugby Super League[116] represented by Old Mission Beach Athletic Club RFC, the home club of USA Rugby's Captain Todd Clever who plays rugby professionally for the South African Super 14 team Lions.[117] San Diego will participate in the Western American National Rugby League which starts in 2011.[118]

The San Diego Surf of the American Basketball Association is located in the city. The annual Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament (formerly the Buick Invitational) on the PGA Tour occurs at the municipally owned Torrey Pines Golf Course. This course was also the site of the 2008 U.S. Open Golf Championship. The San Diego Yacht Club hosted the America's Cup yacht races three times during the period 1988 to 1995. The amateur beach sport Over-the-line was invented in San Diego,[119] and the annual world Over-the-line championships are held at Mission Bay every year.[120]
Several buildings in front with signs for various stores, high skyscraper behind them on left with NBC logo
NBC San Diego (left) is outside Horton Plaza on Broadway downtown.
See also: List of media set in San Diego

The following are published within the city: the daily newspaper, The San Diego Union-Tribune and its online portal, signonsandiego.com,[121] and the alternative newsweeklies, the San Diego CityBeat and San Diego Reader. Another newspaper is the North County Times, which is distributed in San Diego's North County area. Voice of San Diego is a non-profit online-only news outlet covering government, politics, education, neighborhoods, and the arts. The San Diego Daily Transcript is a business-oriented daily newspaper.

San Diego led U.S. local markets with 69.6 percent broadband penetration in 2004 according to Nielsen//NetRatings.[122]

San Diego's first television station was KFMB, which began broadcasting on May 16, 1949.[123] Since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensed seven television stations in Los Angeles, two VHF channels were available for San Diego because of its relative proximity to the larger city. In 1952, however, the FCC began licensing UHF channels, making it possible for cities such as San Diego to acquire more stations. Stations based in Mexico (with ITU prefixes of XE and XH) also serve the San Diego market. Television stations today include XHTJB 3 (Once TV), XETV 6 (CW), KFMB 8 (CBS), KGTV 10 (ABC), XEWT 12 (Televisa Regional), KPBS 15 (PBS), KBNT 17 (Univision), XHTIT 21 (Azteca 7), XHJK 27 (Azteca 13), KSDX-LP 29 (Spanish Independent), XHAS 33 (Telemundo), K35DG 35 (UCSD-TV), KDTF 36 (Telefutura), KNSD 39 (NBC), KZSD-LP 41 (Azteca America), KBOP-CA 43 (Informercials), XHBJ 45 (Canal 5), XHDTV 49 (MNTV), KUSI 51 (Independent), XHUAA 57 (Canal de las Estrellas),and KSWB-TV 69 (Fox). San Diego has an 80.6 percent cable penetration rate.[124]

The radio stations in San Diego include nationwide broadcaster, Clear Channel Communications; CBS Radio, Midwest Television, Lincoln Financial Media, Finest City Broadcasting, and many other smaller stations and networks. Stations include: KOGO AM 600, KFMB AM 760, KCEO AM 1000, KCBQ AM 1170, K-Praise, KLSD AM 1360 Air America, KFSD 1450 AM, KPBS-FM 89.5, Channel 933, Star 94.1, FM 94/9, New Country 95.7, Q96 96.1, KyXy 96.5, Free Radio San Diego (AKA Pirate Radio San Diego) 96.9FM FRSD, KSON 97.3/92.1, KIFM 98.1, Jack-FM 100.7, 101.5 KGB-FM, KPRI 102.1, Rock 105.3, and another Pirate Radio station at 106.9FM, as well as a number of local Spanish language radio stations.
Local government
Wood paneling floor to ceiling with seats for 8 members and support staff
San Diego City Council chambers
See also: San Diego City Council

The city is governed by a mayor and an 8-member city council. In 2006, the city's form of government changed from a "city manager system" to a "strong mayor system". The change was brought about by a citywide vote in 2004. The mayor is in effect the chief executive officer of the city, while the council is the legislative body.[125]

The members of the city council are each elected from single member districts within the city. The mayor and city attorney are elected directly by the voters of the entire city. The mayor, city attorney, and council members are elected to four-year terms, with a two-term limit.[126] Elections are held on a non-partisan basis per California state law; nevertheless, most officeholders do identify themselves as either Democrats or Republicans.
Waist high portrait of man in his sixties, smiling in a black suit
Mayor Jerry Sanders

Although San Diego has a Republican mayor,[127] in 2007, registered Democrats outnumbered Republicans by about 7 to 6 in the city, and Democrats currently hold a 5–3 majority in the City Council.[128]

San Diego is part of San Diego County which is governed by a 5-member Board of Supervisors. The City of San Diego includes all or part of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th supervisorial[129] districts, represented by Republican County Supervisors Greg Cox, Dianne Jacob, Pam Slater-Price and Ron Roberts.[130]

Areas of the city immediately adjacent to San Diego Bay ("tidelands") are administered by the Port of San Diego, a quasi-governmental agency which owns all the property in the tidelands and is responsible for its land use planning, policing, and similar functions. San Diego is a member of the regional planning agency San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Public schools within the city are managed and funded by independent school districts (see above).
State and federal

In the state legislature San Diego is located in the 36th, 38th, 39th, and 40th Senate District, represented by Republicans Dennis Hollingsworth and Mark Wyland, and Democrats Christine Kehoe and Denise Moreno Ducheny, and in the 74th, 75th, 76th, 77th, 78th, and 79th Assembly District, represented by Republicans Martin Garrick and George A. Plescia, Democrat Lori Saldaña, Republicans Joel Anderson and Shirley Horton and Democrat Mary Salas, respectively.

Federally, San Diego is located in California's 49th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, and 53rd congressional districts, which have Cook PVIs of R +10, R +5, D +7, R +9, and D +12 respectively[131] and are represented by Republicans Darrell Issa and Brian Bilbray, Democrat Bob Filner, Republican Duncan D. Hunter, and Democrat Susan Davis, respectively.
Major scandals

Then-mayor Roger Hedgecock was forced to resign his post in 1985, after he was found guilty of one count of conspiracy and twelve counts of perjury, related to the alleged failure to report all campaign contributions.[132][133] After a series of appeals, the twelve perjury counts were dismissed in 1990 based on claims of juror misconduct; the remaining conspiracy count was reduced to a misdemeanor and then dismissed.[134]

A 2002 scheme to underfund pensions for city employees led to the San Diego pension scandal. This resulted in the resignation of newly re-elected Mayor Dick Murphy[135] and the criminal indictment of six pension board members.[136] Those charges were finally dismissed by a federal judge in 2010.[137]

On November 28, 2005, U.S. Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham resigned after being convicted on federal bribery charges. He had represented California's 50th congressional district, which includes much of the northern portion of the city of San Diego. In 2006, Cunningham was sentenced to a 100-month prison sentence.[138]

In 2005 two city council members, Ralph Inzunza and Deputy Mayor Michael Zucchet — who briefly took over as Acting Mayor when Murphy resigned — were convicted of extortion, wire fraud, and conspiracy to commit wire fraud for taking campaign contributions from a strip club owner and his associates, allegedly in exchange for trying to repeal the city's "no touch" laws at strip clubs.[139] Both subsequently resigned. In 2009, a judge acquitted Zucchet on seven out of the nine counts against him, and granted his petition for a new trial on the other two charges;[140] the remaining charges were eventually dropped.[141]

Water is supplied to residents by the Water Department of the City of San Diego. The city receives its water from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California.

Gas and electric utilities are provided by San Diego Gas & Electric, a division of Sempra Energy.
Main articles: Transportation in San Diego and Streets and highways of San Diego
I-5 looking south toward downtown San Diego

With the automobile being the primary means of transportation for over 80 percent of its residents, San Diego is served by a network of freeways and highways. This includes Interstate 5, which runs south to Tijuana and runs north to Los Angeles; Interstate 8, which runs east to Imperial County and the Arizona Sun Corridor; Interstate 15, which runs northeast through the Inland Empire to Las Vegas; and Interstate 805, which splits from I-5 near the Mexican border and rejoins I-5 at Sorrento Valley.

Major state highways include SR 94, which connects downtown with I-805, I-15 and East County; SR 163, which connects downtown with the northeast part of the city, intersects I-805 and merges with I-15 at Miramar; SR 52, which connects La Jolla with East County through Santee and SR 125; SR 56, which connects I-5 with I-15 through Carmel Valley and Rancho Peñasquitos; SR 75, which spans San Diego Bay as the San Diego-Coronado Bridge, and also passes through South San Diego as Palm Avenue; and SR 905, which connects I-5 and I-805 to the Otay Mesa Port of Entry.

The stretch of SR 163 that passes through Balboa Park is San Diego's oldest freeway, and has been called one of America's most beautiful parkways.[142]

San Diego's roadway system provides an extensive network of routes for travel by bicycle. The dry and mild climate of San Diego makes cycling a convenient and pleasant year-round option. At the same time, the city's hilly, canyon-like terrain and significantly long average trip distances—brought about by strict low-density zoning laws—somewhat restrict cycling for utilitarian purposes. Older and denser neighborhoods around the downtown tend to be utility cycling oriented. This is partly because of the grid street patterns now absent in newer developments farther from the urban core, where suburban style arterial roads are much more common. As a result, a vast majority of cycling-related activities are recreational. Testament to San Diego's cycling efforts, in 2006, San Diego was rated as the best city for cycling for U.S. cities with a population over 1 million.[143]
View of Coronado and San Diego from the air

San Diego is served by the trolley, bus, Sprinter, Coaster, and Amtrak. The trolley primarily serves downtown and surrounding urban communities, Mission Valley, east county, and coastal south bay. A planned Mid-Coast line will operate from Old Town to University City along the 5 Freeway. The Amtrak and Coaster trains currently run along the coastline and connect San Diego with Los Angeles, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura via Metrolink. There are two Amtrak stations in San Diego, in Old Town and Downtown. San Diego transit information about public transportation and commuting is available on the Web and by dialing "511" from any phone in the area.[144][145]

The city's primary commercial airport is the San Diego International Airport (SAN), also known as Lindbergh Field. It is the busiest single-runway airport in the United States,[146] that served over 17 million passengers in 2005, and is dealing with an increasingly larger number every year.[146] It is located on San Diego Bay three miles (4.8 km) from downtown. San Diego International Airport maintains scheduled flights to the rest of the United States including Hawaii, as well as to Mexico and Canada. It is operated by an independent agency, the San Diego Regional Airport Authority. In addition, the city itself operates two general-aviation airports, Montgomery Field (MYF) and Brown Field (SDM).[147]

Several regional transportation projects have been undertaken in recent years to deal with congestion in San Diego. Notable efforts are on San Diego freeways, San Diego Airport, and the cruise terminal of the port. Freeway projects include expansion of Interstates 5 and 805 around "The Merge," a rush-hour spot where the two freeways meet. Also, an expansion of Interstate 15 through the North County is underway with the addition of high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) "managed lanes". There is a tollway (The South Bay Expressway) connecting SR 54 and Otay Mesa, near the Mexican border. According to a 2007 assessment, 37 percent of streets in San Diego were in acceptable driving condition. The proposed budget fell $84.6 million short of bringing the city's streets to an acceptable level.[148] Port expansions included a second cruise terminal on Broadway Pier which opened in 2010. Airport projects include expansion of Terminal 2, currently under construction and slated for completion in 2013.[149


Sep 12, 2011

The Maldives is located in Asia


Maldives are small islands located in the continent of Asia in the Indian Ocean, a Muslim country where most of its population are Muslims, and passes by the south of the equator, and the Arabs call it an old or Mahldep Vebh deadlines and is likely to have been diverted and became pronounced Maldiv.

Britain ruled the Maldives 78 years as a British protectorate, and the Maldives became independent in 1965, and its name in the official language is Raji Devi (Maldives), with a population of 309 thousand inhabitants and its capital, Malé.

The Maldives is a member of the Commonwealth joined in 1982.
Called out Maldiv

Maldiv knew a lot of different names during its long history for more than two thousand years, although giving several different names, location and description of the islands Aokdan Maldiv it. Was derived the name "Maldiv" from Maale Dhivehi Raajje. (1) the islands Vebh limits (broken open and the altered M-na bound). Franks has been on the term Aryan: a leisurely Vebh, and V characters (linked) is operative and they said they have not finished Dhib then came to the Maldives and translators these days are being transferred without their knowledge or Roukh they said, "Mldiv" a mistake. And its people - has seen them - still say leisurely Vebh "Vebh deadlines."

Indicate comparative studies in linguistics, customs and traditions in the Maldives to the decline of the first settlers of the dynasty Aldrvidah of Kerala in the Sangam (300 BC - 300 AD), [1] suggest, these studies indicate that these settlers tasks only hunters came from the south of the Indian subcontinent and the western coast of Sri Lanka. The people of Garavarro - and who hails from Tamil - one of the first settlers in the Maldives, where they said Maldivian folklore and formed other for a monarchy in Malé. Also led cruises to the people of Kerala to Astotan Tamils ​​in each of the Khdib and the Maldives so was considered these islands as one group in the archipelago, and led trips to the affected population in the Maldives in Tamil and Malayalam, and shows the vulnerability in the names of places, poetry, dance and religious beliefs. Some argue that settlers from Gujarat formed the main layer of the Migration Maldiv, where the cruise started from Gujarat to the Maldives in the era of Indus Valley Civilization. Also refers to the possibility of some Marine Biology advent of some of the first immigrants from Southeast Asia. [2] presented Sinhalese, led by Prince Vijaya to the Maldives in the period between the year 543 BC until 483 BC after being forced to leave their original homeland in Orissa. According to Mahavenza - historical poem written in the reign of the kings of Sri Lanka - lost one of the ships sailing in the fleet of Prince Vijaba and went to the Maldives. Some evidence also points to the arrival of Arabs and Asians to the Maldives, especially in the atolls of the South Maldiv.

* - Block 5 BC: The reconstruction of the Maldives born Buddhists from India and Sri Lanka.
* - In 1153: the entry of Islam in the Maldives.
* - 1558 - Portuguese occupation

Studies show the comparison of the traditions and customs, cultural, linguistic and verbal Maldivian that the early settlers were from Aldravaidyanyen, is likely to be fishermen from the southwest coast of India.
2004 tsunami
On December 26 / December 2004, after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, destroying the Maldives by the tsunami, only 9 islands stated that they survived the flood, while the face 57 the island of serious damage in the infrastructure critical, 14 islands, she had to give up completely and 6 islands destroyed, the total damage estimated at $ 400 million, which equals approximately one third of GDP.

The number of victims a total of 108 victims, including six foreigners, and the total length of the longer wavelengths of more than 14 feet (4.3 meters) and this high level of waves. [3]


Politics in the Maldives presidential occur within the Republic, where the president head of government. Headed by President Atidah power and appoints the Ministry. The President nominated for a period of five years by secret ballot of the Majlis (parliament), and the Constitution prohibits non-Muslims from voting.
Island of Maldives

Include the Maldives atoll approximately 1190 collected in a series of 26 double atoll.

The atoll is composed of living coral crevices and barricades, and the length of the bottom edge of the below sea level 960 km, which suddenly rises from the depths of the Indian Ocean.
[Edit] Climate
Sunset in the Maldives

Indian Ocean has a significant impact on the country as a barrier to heat, and is absorbed, and stores, and issue a tropical heat slowly, and the temperature range Maldives between 24-33 m, although the humidity is relatively high, and keep breezes cool sea fixed transmission of air and heat a home.
[Edit] rain

Average annual rainfall is 2540 mm in the north, 3.810 mm in the south.

Environmental issues

During the last century, sea levels rose about 20 cm, and there are other hikes in the Indian Ocean that could threaten the existence of Maldives.

In 1970, the sea level fell 20-30 cm. In November 2008, President Mohamed Nasheed plans to consider buying new land in India, Sri Lanka, Australia, due to fears of global warming and the possibility of most of the islands that flood water from rising sea levels.

Current projections expect the sea level rise of 59 cm in 2100.

Financial City
Financial City is the capital and largest city of the Maldives

The country's capital and main port, occupies an area of ​​a small but unique and attractive and like the big cities due to its cleanliness and order and system, the frequent mosques, markets, streets interspersed with small tangled labyrinthine those who do not seem to know which is his charm. Financial Island with a length of two kilometers and kilometer wide, and borders Balbnayat overcrowded, and a population of about 65.000, but with foreign workers and tourists, numbering up to 100,000 people and it looks really well.

Odo Island Reef is the second city of Maldives, and Msifha is the best place from which tourists to visit the Maldives and the rest of the population of the island called «Addo» They are very independent, and speak a different language for the residents of the capital and once tried to secede from the Republic. Britain played a major role in changing the shape of the city and after the war have taken the base during World War II, in the year 1956 AD, where Britain has set up an air base, during the Cold War, the city earned the factors that shape the modern look now.

Most tourists come to Maldives in the organized excursions, to visit a resort that more than seventy resorts, mostly in the three atolls near the capital of an island Marlaa North Island Marlaa South Island, Ari, and there are a few other resorts in the islands, reefs nearby.
out of the population

The hobby Maldivian ethnic mix of cultures that reflect the nations that settled on the islands.

Former settlers were likely to be from South India and Sri Lanka.

In 1978 the population doubled from 100 thousand to 200 thousand, and the rate of population growth and peak to 3.4% in 1985. By 2007 the population has reached 300 thousand people, although the census of 2000 saw that the rate of population growth had fallen to 1.9%.

Life expectancy in the Maldives in 1978 was 46 years old, while increased to 72 years now. The suspicious deaths of children fell from 127 per thousand children in 1977 to 12 today.

Aware of the Maldives
Aware of the Maldives between 1926-1932
Crystal Clear app kdict.png Main article: Science Maldiv

Maldivian flag consists of three things, namely:

* A red frame: the symbol of the work, dedication and hard and the blood of the martyrs.
* Green rectangle: the symbol of the palm and Islam, optimism and peace.
* Crescent: The symbol of the official state religion is Islam.

Religious beliefs
Mosque in the Maldives

The official religion of the Maldives is Islam saluting the percentage of Muslims according to census statistics International 100%, and the Constitution provides that all citizens must be Muslims, and no non-Muslim to become a citizen, according to Article 9. And Article II provides that the republic founded on the principles of Islam and the Rule 10 that it will not apply any law against the principles of Islam can be applied in the country. And Article 19 provides that citizens free nations to participate or engage in any activity not prohibited in law or the law. [4] and sources say that there is a small but growing in Almaldivien who doubt their faith, but they rarely announce it. [5] and stick Almaldivien most of the teachings of their religion [of the author of this opinion?] is shown in the official religious ceremonies. [from the author of this opinion?]

Market in the Maldives

In ancient times, famous for the Maldives shells, coir rope, dried tuna fish (Maldive Fish), and amber.

Been used merchant ships to domestic and external loading of these products to Sri Lanka and transfer to other Maana in the Indian Ocean. In the second century AD it was known as the islands (Islands of money) by the Arabs, who Kanu controlled the trade routes in the Indian Ocean. Maldives has provided enormous quantities of shells, which was an international currency in the old time, and chance is now used as a symbol of the cash (money) in the Maldives.

Maldivian government began an economic reform program in 1989 AD and was initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector, in later liberalized regulations to allow more foreign investment, and the average growth of real GDP of more than 7.5% annually for more than a decade of time. These days tourism is the largest industry of the Maldives, accounting for 28% of the gross domestic product and more than 60% of the income of foreign Allamlh, and fishing sector is the second major.

At the end of 2004 Desimbr behind the tsunami more than 100 people dead and 12,000 displaced persons, and causing damage to property exceeded $ 400 million. As a result of the tsunami disaster the local economic output shrank by 3.6% in the year 2005 AD. The return of the tourism recovery and reconstruction after the disaster and the development of new resorts helped the economy recover quickly and showed an increase of 18% in the year 2006 AD. Estimates show the year 2007 AD, the Maldives enjoy the highest total domestic production per capita (4600 dollars) between the countries of South Asia with the exception of Persian Gulf countries.
Maldivian palm-fringed beach ideal long and blue lakes

Maldives was largely unknown to tourists until the early seventies AD, Bntatherha Amtdd on the equator in the Indian Ocean. Maldives archipelago has an exceptional geographic unique in terms of being a small island country. Nature 1190 divided the archipelago into a small island, which occupies one per cent of its area amounting to 90,000 square kilometers. 185 Island only is home to a population of about 300,000 people, while the other islands are used entirely for economic purposes such as tourism and agriculture, which is more prevalent. Tourism accounts for 28% of the gross domestic product, and more than 60% of Alairadadt of foreign currency. More than 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties and taxes related to tourism. Development and tourism development has strengthened the overall growth of the country's economy, has created direct employment, indirect and income generation in other related industries, and was the opening of the first tourist Almottagat in 1972 with the Bandos Island Resort and the village of Kuramba.

According to the website of the Ministry of Tourism on the Internet resulted in the emergence of tourism in 1972 AD, a shift in the economy of the Maldives and quickly move from dependence on the fisheries sector of the tourism sector. In three and a half decades of industry has become the main source of income and livelihood for the people of the Maldives. Tourism is also the country's largest generator of foreign currency and the largest contributor to gross domestic product. Today there are 89 resorts in the Maldives with the capacity for more clinical than 17,000 and provide world-class facilities for tourists of the more than 600,000 annual visitors.

The number of resorts increased from 2 to 92 between 1972 and 2007 and the number of visitors to the Maldives until 2007 AD, more than 8.38 million tourists.

Virtually all visitors arrive by Malé International Airport on the island of Holly Hall, near the capital of Mali. Airport serves a wide variety of trips to India and Sri Lanka, Dubai and major airports in Southeast Asia. As well as an increasing number of charters from Europe, most flights stop in Colombo (Sri Lanka) on the road.

Gan Airport, located on the atoll in the South Addo also serves international flights to Milan several times a week.
Maldives beach.ogv
Filled video
Video of the beach in the Maldives

For several centuries Maldivian economy was entirely dependent on fishing and other sea resorts


Sep 11, 2011

Palace of Versailles, the most important royal palaces in France

Palace of Versailles or the "Chateau de Versailles" (in French: Le château de Versailles), is the most important royal palaces in France and is located in Versailles, about 25 kilometers west of downtown Paris.
Order of Louis XIII 1624 year built a small house for fishing on the nearby hill from the village of Versailles that the small bush nearby and abundant fishing, and in 1632 was to expand the house.

In the reign of Louis XIV built the house in place of the palace of Versailles of 1682. He moved to King Louis XIV in this year's Paris to the palace, the palace remained the royal residence until the headquarters of the ruling family was forced to return to the capital in 1789. Despite this under the Palace of Versailles, a center of power in the Old Testament, France. It has also become a symbol of absolute monarchy by Louis XIV called the Sun King. After 100 years of residence is another king, King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette, who forced them the French Revolution in 1789 to leave the palace, and then hanged or guillotined "knife gelatin."

The oldest mention of the village of Versailles is found in a document dated in 1142, (Charter of the Church of St. - Peter de Chartres). Of the signatories of the Charter was "Hugo de Versailles," and then name of the village.
The lobby of the Palace

During this period, the village of Versailles centered on a small castle and church and the area was under the control of the Lord or a local feudal lord. He said the village site on the road from Paris to Normandy Driuks and some prosperity to the village, but after the Black Death and the Hundred Years War, the village had been destroyed to a great extent and its population reduced significantly.

In 1575 by "Albert de soldier," a Florentine (relative to Florence), bought "Sagenyora Versailles." Arrived, "de soldier" to France with "Catherine de Medici" and his family, and became influential in the French Parliament. In the first decades of the seventeenth century, the "De troops" at the invitation of Louis XIII on several hunting trips in the forests of Versailles.

Order of Louis XIII of the construction of a small house hunting in 1624. Designed by "Vliber Le Roy," The structure built of stone and brick red with a list of the roof. After eight years in 1632, and concluded Louis XIII "Alsagenyora Versailles" of the family "de soldier", and began to expand operations to the palace.

Second German Reich was founded in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles after the Prussian King Wilhelm announced the first tsar of the German Empire in the January 18, 1871 after the quick victory of German troops in the war with France.
Queen bedroom or a room in the Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles in the months building the classic French art and French palaces months that attest to the splendor and architecture of French furniture and decorative landscaping. Interface extends the main palace about 80 meters. It consists of several buildings facing and overlooking the square in the center, and the palace itself consists of three floors. Many of the pieces of furniture and ceilings which are made of gold. In the past, inhabited by approximately 20 thousand people from the king and the ruling Alosro and footnote, servants and royal guard.

"Palace of Versailles Palace was amazing .. the residence of the kings of France as King Louis XIV (preferably pronounced as in French-Louis) and King Louis XV and King Louis XVI .."

Palace of the wonderful garden filled with fountains, and many workers have dedicated only to take care of landscaped and flowers. And always or often be in palaces palace garden behind the building of the palace at Versailles, the garden extends over a wide area approximately 80 hectares


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