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Sep 6, 2011

Alexandria The Citadel of Qaitbay - Mamluk period

The Citadel of Qaitbay (or the Fort of Qaitbay) (Arabic: ‎) is a 15th century defensive fortress located on the Mediterranean sea coast, built upon/from the ruins of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt. It was established in 1477 AD by Sultan Al-Ashraf Sayf al-Din Qa'it Bay.
This castle is located at the end of the most western island of Pharos in Alexandria. And constructed in place of the ancient Lighthouse of Alexandria which was destroyed 702 years after his devastating earthquake that happened in the reign of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad. Began Sultan al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr Bey build this castle in the year 882 and ended his years of building 884. The reason for his interest in Alexandria, the large number of direct threats to Egypt by the Ottoman Empire, which threatened the entire Arab region.
Description of the Castle
It takes the form of the castle square box of 150 m * 130 m, surrounded by sea on three sides. It contains the castle walls and the main tower. Divided by fences to fence internal and external. Valsor internal personnel includes barracks and arms depots. The outer wall of the castle fitted in the bodies of the four defensive towers to rise to the level of the wall with the exception of the eastern wall light, includes the openings of the defensive troops.

And take the main tower in the inner courtyard a fortress large square along the Dilaha 30 meters and a height of 17 meters and consists castle of three storeys and are in the corners of the tower of the four towers, semi-circular ends of the highest balcony prominent include openings to throw darts at two levels and occupy the first floor of a mosque castle, which consists of a nave and four iwans defensive and corridors allow soldiers to easily pass through the defense of the castle. and it was the minaret of the mosque, but it broke down recently.
Interface Bey Citadel
Internal ceiling in the castle Qaitbaatqa the castle at the end of the island of Pharos maximum west of Alexandria. And constructed in place of the ancient Lighthouse of Alexandria which was destroyed 702 years after his devastating earthquake that happened in the reign of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad. Began Sultan al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr Bey build this castle in the year 882 and ended his years of building 884. The reason for his interest in Alexandria, the large number of direct threats to Egypt by the Ottoman Empire, which threatened the entire Arab region.

Description of the Castle
It takes the form of the castle square box of 150 m * 130 m, surrounded by sea on three sides. It contains the castle walls and the main tower. Divided by fences to fence internal and external. Valsor internal personnel includes barracks and arms depots. The outer wall of the castle fitted in the bodies of the four defensive towers to rise to the level of the wall with the exception of the eastern wall light, includes the openings of the defensive troops.

And take the main tower in the inner courtyard a fortress large square along the Dilaha 30 meters and a height of 17 meters and consists castle of three storeys and are in the corners of the tower of the four towers, semi-circular ends of the highest balcony prominent include openings to throw darts at two levels and occupy the first floor of a mosque castle, which consists of a nave and four iwans defensive and corridors allow soldiers to easily pass through the defense of the castle. and it was the minaret of the mosque, but it broke down recently.

The second floor contains the corridors and halls and rooms of the Interior. The third floor houses a large room (seat Sultan Qaat Bay) sit to see the ships on the day's journey from Alexandria covered cellar cross as there is in the oven floor to prepare the land, bread made from wheat and a mill to grind grain for the soldiers living in the castle. The new Sultan Ghori Qansuh increased the castle and its garrison of this castle has been neglected in the Ottoman occupation of Egypt. Citadel established the fortress of Sultan Malik al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr Bey Mahmoudi year 882 AH / 1477 Place of Mannar Alexandria old at the eastern end of the island of Pharos in the late Mamluk state, which is about building a separate length of 60 meters, and width 50 meters, and the thickness of walls 4.5 meters.

This was Al-Manar had been destroyed after an earthquake in 702 AH the days of King al-Nasir Muhammad, which is restored by destroying it after that after several years until destroyed all its parts the year 777 AH / 1375 AD.

When he visited the Sultan Bey in Alexandria year 882 AH / 1477 AD went to the site of the old and the Al-Manar is to build on the basis of the old tower, later known as Castle or Fortress of Bey of construction was completed after two years from the date of construction.

Because Bey Citadel in Alexandria is one of the most important fortresses on the coast of the Mediterranean was concerned with the sultans and the rulers of Egypt over the historical times in the Mamluk era, we find the Sultan Qansuh Ghouri interested in this castle considerable attention and increased the strength of its garrison and shipment of weapons and gear, and to open Ottoman Egypt used the castle place to protect them and took care to preserve and made by groups of soldiers infantry, cavalry and artillery, and the various garrisons to defend them and then defending the gate of Egypt's northern coast and the weakened Ottoman Empire began the castle lost its strategic importance and defensive as a result of the weakness of its garrison, it is then able to the French campaign on Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte seized and the city of Alexandria in 1798, which led to the seizure, which took over the rest of Egypt, to take over Mohammed Ali Pasha ruled Egypt and worked to fortify Egypt and especially its coast north stood the renewal of the walls of the castle and add some business out of the suit and the development of defense of the nineteenth century AD, was to strengthen walls and the renewal of buildings and providing coastal guns in addition to building many Ataiwabi and forts that were deployed along the northern coast of Egypt. Since the revolution, Ahmed Orabi in 1882, which was the results hit the city of Alexandria on July 11 in 1882 and then the British occupation of Egypt was vandalized Bey Citadel and cause cracks it, has been a castle on this case until the Commission for the Conservation Archaeology Arabic in 1904 the work of many of the reforms, and undertake a project to work with renewals based on studies carried out by scientists of the French campaign and published a book in the Description of Egypt, and also by the travelers Cassius in his book The Year 1799.

General architectural planning of the castle






Built Bey Citadel on an area of ​​17,550 square meters was built on this area of ​​the walls of the castle of Foreign Affairs and Astgamatha war which is a series of walls built to further fortify the castle and the walls, a Sorin great of huge stones that surround the castle from the outside and the inside has been prepared to protect the castle, Valsor first is the outer wall and the castle is surrounded on all four sides Valdila east of the wall overlooking the sea and a width of two meters and a height of eight meters and is peppered any towers The western side is a fence a large thickness is greater than the rest of the walls of the castle peppered with three round towers and the longer the wall the oldest remaining parts , while the southern side it overlooks the port of East and peppered with three round towers and strikethrough the door, while the northern side Fatal directly on the sea and is divided into two parts the lower part of it is a corridor large tiled built over the rock directly by several rooms of the upper part is a corridor with openings narrow overlooking the sea The walls of Interior has shown a stone and surrounded the tower master of all his part, except the north and permeates the wall inside of a group of rooms adjacent prepared a barracks for the soldiers and are free of any openings other than door openings and openings Mzagl allocated to be openings for ventilation of the hand and Kfathat to defend on the other. The main tower of the castle, it is the district north-western area of ​​the castle and the main tower of the castle is a building of three floors will be planning out a square from each corner of the four pillars round tower rising from the surface of the main tower was built with limestone tower hard



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